This is a great write-up and is very much in line with what PubMed abstracts have to say.
I ponder macro-nutrition needs a whole bunch. Here’s what I have handy, though my technical references are scattered and omitted.
There’s always a need for roughage, vitamins, and minerals, which come from foods with very low calories/kilojoules. Aside from that, the three main macros have specific needs.
A body needs 125 grams of carbs for your brain/nerves; just under 1 gram of protein per kilo of lean body mass to maintain tissues/muscles; and around 30g of fat for cellular and neurological structures. This is usually around 1200 kcal per day, but varies by person 10-20 percent.
Anything else you eat is either poop, or gets converted to sugar. Sugar is burned if it’s needed immediately for exercise (growing, standing, walking, cardio, whatever, anything other than sleeping). Any sugar that is not immediately needed is stored in muscles as glycogen, up to around 4% of your muscle mass. All sugar past that is turned into fat and stored in our fat cells.
This is where “whole grains” comes into play. If it’s not ground up, it takes longer to break it down. However, if you take grains, and mill them into a powder, IT IS NOT WHOLE GRAINS. Just because there is fiber in the food does not mean it’s slow to absorb. The less processed the food, the longer time period over which it trickles energy into your body. If it’s super processed, it all absorbs very quickly, and your body may have trouble figuring out what to do with it unless you’re depleted already.
This is also where some insulin resistance comes from, and why diabetics have normal sugar metabolism in their muscles during exercise, even if they are short on insulin, or are resistant to it. Resistance is GLUT4 which causes glucose receptors to move to the cell membrane, but exercise does the same thing – muscle is hungry, it asks for more. Muscle is not hungry, it asks for less, even if you try to overfeed it. Where would it put this excess sugar? It can only store so much.
During exercise, your fat cells can liberate about 90% of your weight in pounds as usable calories per hour. For me, it’s about 260 calories. The gap is made up from glycogen in the muscles, which is good for just about 90 minutes. If you exercise hard, and stop at 60, and rest for 30, those 30 mins still use up that glycogen for delayed processes, cleanup, etc.
Eating carbs cannot provide as much energy as glycogen, but it’s the next best thing. Also, if you’re fasting, your glycogen reserves get burned up pretty quickly. Glycogen is 3:1 water to sugar, so this is why the first week of dieting is so awesome. No, that’s not fat. It’s muscle energy.
Any energy deficiency not covered by food will be covered by muscle damage. About the same number of calories can be broken down out of injured muscle cells. For me, this is a total of muscle and fat sourced calories of about 520 calories per hour. If I exercise for 3 hours with no food, then my power output drops to 130 watts, which is about 520 calories per hour.
The best option to limit muscle damage, limit recovery time, and optimize exercise benefits when going for more than your glycoge, is to eat as much every hour as you burn, minus the calories that can come from fat. Staying carb focussed can give more energy, and can be easier to absorb, though for some people, this slows the breakdown of body fat.
Staying fat focussed keeps the fat burn mechanisms running, but it takes twice as much oxygen, which means you’re hear-rate limited. It’s less about muscle conditioning then, and more about cardiovascular improvement.
Staying protein focussed is tougher on the kidneys. The aminos have to be converted for use as fuel, and that’s a lot of extra ammonia to pee out. That can be an issue when dehydration might already be at play.
Max bodyfat you can burn in an hour is roughly 1 gram per 10 pounds, or in calories, 9 times your weight in pounds.
Anything else is food, muscle glycogen, or actual muscle tissue. Glycogen max is about 4% lean muscle mass, which usually is enough for 90 mins, plus or minus. Food is whatever is in your gut, though exercise slows digestion.
Bonk is when you have used up all food, and your glycogen stores, effectively exercising while fasted.
Bonk power is the max sustained energy ouput when you are fasted/bonked. This is fat burn, and muscle breakdown, combines.
Average watts is roughly 1/4 your calories per hour.
Me as an example
I’m 280 pounds, and bonk power for me is 133 watts, which is about 520 calories per hour. Doing that pretty much guarantees cramps from muscle breakdown.
Biking, I tend to burn 750-850 calories per hour, but I can peak at over 1000 in some instances (beginning, well fed, well rested, very driven).
That’s a big gap, because being big, I get more wind drag, which is 50% of your energy above 15mph. I also take more energy to climb a hill.
Downhill is faster, so less benefit (less time spent going downhill), and often waste the energy by riding brakes so as to not plow through others.
I do best consuming 600 calories per hour while riding more than 90 mins.
So, I have to eat the equivalent of a meal every hour to keep up, and reduce cramp risks. Most of that needs to be carbs that break down in less than an hour. Also, I don’t want to have a bathroom break every hour.
Sugary colas have phosphate, glucose, and fructose – all good for refueling. Cookies, sandwiches, etc usually are low roughage, good energy density, and include salt. M&Ms were actually designed to be endurance fuel for the army, and they hold up pretty well in a plastic bag.
Basically, all the things that are bad for you normally make great endurance fuel.
As to proper “race fuel”, honestly, it’s too low calorie for someone my size. Some people only need 200 calories an hour to stay fueled, so half banana, a 2″ square of granola, and a swig of gatorade is fine. For me, that would be a whole bunch bananas, and two quarts of gatorade. Just too much bulk.
Add to all that the need for oxygen to build ATP (actual muscle energy chemical). It takes 35% more oxygen to burn blood glucose than intra-muscular glycogen. Fat takes twice as much oxygen as glucose. High heat, humidity, low pressure, altitude, carbonation, and alcohol all reduce oxygen availability. Transport of glucose into the cell takes ATP. Digestion of food takes ATP.
Diabetes, Insulin Resistance, and Metabolic Syndrome
The key there is to not eat much carbohydrate outside of the exercise times. When glycogen reserves are full (muscles recovered), and adipose cells are replete, then why would you need more fuel? That’s the practical wording of the physiology here, despite the perception of a faulty hunger mechanism for the obese, or lack of islets for type I, or the defective signalling in Type II without obesity triggers.
Exercise induced glucose uptake is normal in diabetic muscle cells:
Exercise may increase glucose sensitivity:
While glycogen is being replenished, glucose uptake by muscles in normal. GLUT4 is transported to the membrane during exercise, even in absence of insulin.
This is what SEEMS to make the most sense for me. No *way* is easy, but this seems the least hard.
* Defer first meal until actually hungry (9:30a-12:30p for me)
* Keep each meal before 3:30pm around 12% of my daily intake.
* Eat before I get ravenous (around every 2 hours).
* Try to keep a reserve of about 25% of my calories for the evening.
* Don’t be TOO aggressive (20% deficit is okay, but 40% is not).
* Keep extra servings away from my plate/bowl.
* Split up snack/mini-meals when I’m not hungry.
* Stay busy (yay computer!)
* You have to exercise, because your body will reduce your BMR to keep from losing fat reserves.
* Hungries are worse the day AFTER exercise, so save your calories for tomorrow.
* Lots of broths, leaves, fresh veggies to add bulk, and fill in when I’m STILL HUNGRY!
* Make sure I get the food groups and vitamins daily / weekly rather than every meal.
* UMAMI: Your tongue creates Peptide YY it detects meat, glutamate, etc. Reduces hunger by 30% in the lab.
* VITAMIN A: Hunger hormones are produced by fat cells. Empty fat cells do not get recycled without Vitamin A.
* VITAMIN D: Vitamin D is blocked by Vitamin A, and is deficient for many indorsy people.
* CALCIUM: Requires Vitamin D to be absorbed. Prevents brittle bones.
Some days will be better than others. Don’t give up. Keep tinkering.
Sharon ran across a recipe that looks amazing. It is very similar to my mom’s recipe, except they use melted butter in place of the oil+butter_flavoring; and they use twice as much icing.
Italian Cream Cheese Cake Recipe
1/2 cup butter, softened
1/2 cup shortening…
2 cups sugar
5 eggs, separated
1 teaspoon vanilla extract
2 cups all-purpose flour
1 teaspoon baking soda
1 cup buttermilk
1-1/2 cups flaked coconut
1 cup chopped pecans
CREAM CHEESE FROSTING:
2 packages (one 8 ounces, one 3 ounces) cream cheese, softened
3/4 cup butter, softened
6 cups confectioners’ sugar
1-1/2 teaspoons vanilla extract
3/4 cup chopped pecans
In a large bowl, cream the butter, shortening and sugar until light and fluffy. Beat in egg yolks and vanilla. Combine flour and baking soda; add to creamed mixture alternately with buttermilk. Beat just until combined. Stir in coconut and pecans.
In a small bowl, beat egg whites until stiff peaks form. Fold a fourth of the egg whites into batter, then fold in remaining whites. Pour into three greased and floured 9-in. round baking pans.
Bake at 350° for 20-25 minutes or until a toothpick inserted near the center comes out clean. Cool for 10 minutes before removing from pans to wire racks to cool completely.
In a large bowl, beat cream cheese and butter until smooth. Beat in confectioners’ sugar and vanilla until fluffy. Stir in pecans. Spread frosting between layers and over top and sides of cake. Store in the refrigerator.
For reference, Here is my mom’s recipe, slightly annotated by me. She kept it on a 3×5 card in her recipe box, but it might have been something she got from her mom.
Mom’s Italian Cream Cake Recipe
Set oven to 350 (preheating)
2 cups sugar
1/2 cup shortening
1/2 cup oil
1/2 tsp vanilla
1/2 tsp butter flavor
Add 5 yolks (emulsifiers), one at a time, and stir after each one.
Once it’s all creamed, add:
1 cup buttermilk
Then, add the dry team
2 cups flour
1 tsp soda
1 cup Angel Flake coconut (Canned is better than dry bagged)
Add the whites
Beat 5 egg whites until stiff
Fold egg whites gently into batter
Bake the cake
Pour equally into 3 round 8″ cake pans.
Bake for 20-25 minutes at preheated 350 degrees F.
Melt and mix the icing in a double boiler
8oz cream cheese
1 stick margarine or butter
1/2 tsp vanilla
1/2 tsp butter flavor
Once melted, add:
1 box powdered sugar
Once smooth, add:
1/2 cup chopped pecans
Cool icing by placing pan/bowl in cold water.
Once the cake is out and cooled, spread the icing between layers, then on the top and sides.
Let set up overnight in the fridge.
Note: Individual slices freeze very well and are extremely tasty while still frozen.
Doing research, it seems that while there are some big deviations, and many of them seem to be lower fat, or more icing, or etc, these all originated in the early 1900s. First reference to the cake was 1913 in Canada, and first published recipe was 1937 in Plano, TX. It’s supposed to be from a US Italian immigrant. https://www.oklahomapastrycloth.com/blog/?p=7565
Many will sub in a stick of butter, oleo, or margarine for the half cup of oil. I bet you could just sub both for butter-flavored crisco. Some say salted, some not. Some avoid coconut (WTF!?!?!?) and some double-up.
Butternut squash with coconut butter and cinnamon. Best food ever. TYVM slavetrunks, I mean Erica!
Unfortunately, I’m apparently developing a mild allergy to coconut. I have a very slight case of pharyngitis from sleep deprivation, and the pureed coconut texture is the same pattern of sensation as the sparkles I feel since having consumed it with supper.
I better back off, because I love coconut. Don’t want to ruin grated, chunk, and candied coconut just for this magical elixer I’ve survived without until now.
Ride to Sanger with the Sharon group. I was 22 mins late leaving the house, so I told them not to delay the start time. They waited 5-6 mins for me at Hwy 377 and Bonnie Brae. It was a hard push to catch up, and Sharon pushed hard once I got in sight.
Unfortunately, this sort of punished/burned out some of the others as well, especially Jim F. Jim tried to hang on, but at the end he finally admitted he needed to work his way up to this length of ride. He completed it, but with our waiting, it was 2-3 hours extra. That being said, for being about 3 months post-op for hip replacement, he’s doing awesome.
Becky took the SAG wagon back from lunch because of other committments. Karl took it because he broke a drive-side spoke in the middle where it’d been notched by the chain about 2000 miles ago.
Lunch at Modmarket, a new restaurant. Apple maps had a massively wrong location for 3651 Justin Road. Also, notice the teleport from Wal-Mart to Silverthorn. I forgot to turn on my GPS.
Karl, Jim and I went for a quick spin. Pretty muggy out there, but the temps were nice. We started early, and rolled about 7:05am from the AMC pond, and about 6:50 from my back gate. Ended up a little further than we planned, but was good. Wind was brutal. This was a pretty hard push to only get 16.2mph. Average watts shows the truth.
I stayed near the front for much of the second half of the ride, but I was never far ahead. It’s more of the initial power-up rather than a massive difference in power. Looking over the last few months of Garmin history for rides over 20 mins and 5 miles, this is my highest average wattage (214 vs 207) by 7 watts, but only my second highest max-average-watts (244 vs 258 highest 20-min average during the ride).
I also had actual breakfast – 2 mini sausage-biscuits (300kcal) and 3 six-inch pancakes (about the same). No syrup or butter. Powerade full-strength in one bottle, and half plus sugar-free green tea in the other… plus 20oz of gatorade mid-ride, plus a fried pie mid ride. It was 20 miles in before I opened the first bottle, but I’ve been pretty well hydrated lately. I definitely felt the slowdown before beginning the rehydration.
I was short on sleep, and had Advocare MNS Max E (though I didn’t have the CorePlex, the probiotic, nor the Omega. I added a single OptiMen multi tablet, and one TwinLab TriBoron Plus calcium). The MNS E is caffeine laiden, and I felt very alert. Perceived exertion seemed lower than expected, but it was still very obviously a hard push. The ingredients all look to be okay were I in a UCI race, but I can’t help but wonder about metabolites, etc. I couldn’t find anything on the USADA or WADA websites on labs for testing. They specifically don’t test supplements. More research is warranted.
Just a jaunt over to lunch with Mark, Rob and Scott.
Lots of discussions about rights, racketeering, police brutality, religion, etc.
20:21 Moving Time
246ft Elevation (?)
9 Suffer Score
1 Points in the Red
240W Weighted Avg Power
238kJ Total Work
37 Training Load
Stat Avg Max
Speed 13.7mi/h 34.0mi/h
Heart Rate 124bpm 168bpm
Cadence 73 102
Power 195W 831W
Elapsed Time 2:28:17
Heart Rate Analysis
Z1 Endurance < 106 4:11 21% Z2 Moderate 106 - 141 12:45 63% Z3 Tempo 141 - 158 2:33 13% Z4 Threshold 158 - 175 52s 4% Z5 Anaerobic > 175 0s 0%
Z1 Active Recovery 1 – 134 W 8:15 41%
Z2 Endurance 135 – 183 W 2:15 11%
Z3 Tempo 184 – 220 W 1:58 10%
Z4 Threshold 221 – 257 W 1:20 7%
Z5 VO2Max 258 – 294 W 1:17 6%
Z6 Anaerobic 295 – 367 W 1:44 9%
Z7 Neuromuscular 368+ W 3:25 17%
Distance: 4.64 mi
Avg Speed: 13.8 mph
Elevation Gain: 246 ft
Calories: 239 C
Avg Temperature: 99.0 °F
Moving Time: 19:59
Elapsed Time: 2:28:28
Avg Speed: 13.8 mph
Avg Moving Speed: 13.9 mph
Max Speed: 34.7 mph
Elevation Gain: 246 ft
Elevation Loss: 217 ft
Min Elevation: 558 ft
Max Elevation: 627 ft
Avg HR: 124 bpm
Max HR: 168 bpm
Zones% of Maxbpm
Avg Power: 202 W
Max Power: 831 W
Max Avg Power (20 min): 84 W
Normalized Power (NP): 283 W
Intensity Factor (IF): 1.155
Training Stress Score (TSS): 43.7
FTP Setting: 245 W
Work: 245 kJ
Avg Bike Cadence: 72 rpm
Max Bike Cadence: 102 rpm
Avg Temperature: 99.0 °F
Min Temperature: 86.0 °F
Max Temperature: 105.8 °F
Split Time Distance Avg Speed
Summary 20:08.3 4.64 13.8
1 9:03.5 1.92 12.7
2 11:04.9 2.72 14.7
90° Feels like 95°
9 mph ENE wind
Device: Garmin Edge 500, 220.127.116.11
Elevation Corrections: Disabled
Power Average Calculations: Use Zeros
Summary Data: Original